The term comes from the Ecclesiastical Latin: peccatum Sodomiticum, or "sin of Sodom" and is derived from the Greek word Σόδομα Sódoma.

The Book of Genesis (chapters 18-20) tells how God wished to destroy the sinful cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Two angels (literally "messengers") are invited by Lot to take refuge with his family for the night. The men of Sodom surrounded Lot's house and demanded that he bring the messengers out, so that they can "know" them. Lot protests that the "messengers" are his guests, and offers them his virgin daughters instead, but the Sodomites threaten to "do worse" with Lot than with his guests; whereupon the angels strike the Sodomites blind, "so that they wearied themselves to find the door." (Genesis 19:4-11, KJV)

In current usage, the term is particularly used in law. Laws prohibiting sodomy were seen frequently in past Jewish, Christian, and Islamic civilizations, but the term has little modern usage outside Africa, the Islamic countries and the United States.

In the various criminal codes of the U.S. the term "sodomy" has generally been replaced by "Deviant sexual intercourse"

It is described as any form of penetrative intercourse or cunnilingus between unmarried persons. These laws have been challenged and have sometimes been found unconstitutional or been replaced with different legislation. Elsewhere, the legal use of the term "sodomy" is restricted to rape cases where anal penetration has taken place.

Many cognates in other languages, such as French sodomie (verb sodomiser), Spanish sodomía (verb sodomizar) and Portuguese sodomia (verb sodomizar)

They are used exclusively for penetractive anal sex at least since the early nineteenth century. In those, this term often is also a current vernacular (not just legal, unlike in other cultures) formal way of referring to any practice of anal penetration, as the word for sex is usually associated with consenting and pleasing of all involved parties and because it avoids direct mentioning of two sources of common social taboo (human sexuality and the anus), without a shunning or archaic connotation to its use.

In modern German, the word Sodomie has no connotation of anal or oral sex

It refers specifically to bestiality. The same goes for the Polish sodomia. The Norwegian word sodomi carries both senses.

In Arabic and Persian, the word for sodomy, لواط (Arabic pronunciation: liwāṭ; Persian pronunciation lavât), is derived from the same source as in Western culture, with much the same connotations as English (referring to most sexual acts prohibited by the Qur'an). Its direct reference is to Lot (لوط Lūṭ in Arabic), and a more literal interpretation of the word is "the practice of Lot", but more accurately it means "the practice of Lot's people" (the Sodomites) rather than Lot himself.

The word "sod", a noun or verb (to "sod off") used as an insult,

It is derived from sodomite. It is a general-purpose insult term for anyone the speaker dislikes without specific reference to their sexual behaviour. Sod is used as slang in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and is mildly offensive.

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